SQL Server Operators

SQL Server Operators

Hi friends, in this post we will discuss about SQL Server Operators. Operator is a symbol specifying an action performed on one or more expressions. Operators are used to specify conditions in an SQL statement.

Following are operators in SQL Server:
Arithmetic Operators: Arithmetic operators used to perform mathematical operations on two expressions.

Operator Meaning Example
+ (Add) Addition 4+2=6
– (Subtract) Subtraction 4-2=2
* (Multiply) Multiplication 4*2=8
/ (Divide) Division 4/2=2
% (Modulo) Returns the integer remainder of a division. 0

Logical Operators: Logical operators, like comparison operators, return a Boolean data type with a value of TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

Operator Description
ALL The ALL operator is used to compare a value to all values in another value set.
AND The AND operator allows the existence of multiple conditions in an SQL statement’s WHERE clause.
ANY The ANY operator is used to compare a value to any applicable value in the list according to the condition.
BETWEEN The BETWEEN operator is used to search for values that are within a set of values, given the minimum value and the maximum value.
EXISTS The EXISTS operator is used to search for the presence of a row in a specified table that meets certain criteria.
IN The IN operator is used to compare a value to a list of literal values that have been specified.
LIKE The LIKE operator is used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators.
NOT The NOT operator reverses the meaning of the logical operator with which it is used. Eg: NOT EXISTS, NOT BETWEEN, NOT IN, etc. This is a negate operator.
OR The OR operator is used to combine multiple conditions in an SQL statement’s WHERE clause.
IS NULL The NULL operator is used to compare a value with a NULL value.
UNIQUE The UNIQUE operator searches every row of a specified table for uniqueness (no duplicates).

Assignment Operator: The equal sign (=) is the only Transact-SQL assignment operator.

Scope Resolution Operator: The scope resolution operator :: provides access to static members of a compound data type.

Bitwise Operators: Bitwise operators perform bit manipulations between two expressions of any of the data types of the integer data type category.

Operator Meaning
& (Bitwise AND) Bitwise AND (two operands).
| (Bitwise OR) Bitwise OR (two operands).
^ (Bitwise Exclusive OR) Bitwise exclusive OR (two operands).

Set Operators: Set operators combine results from two or more queries into a single result set.

EXCEPT and INTERSECT
UNION

Comparison Operators: Comparison operators test whether two expressions are the same.

Operator Meaning
= (Equals) Equal to
> (Greater Than) Greater than
< (Less Than) Less than
>= (Greater Than or Equal To) Greater than or equal to
<= (Less Than or Equal To) Less than or equal to
<> (Not Equal To) Not equal to
!= (Not Equal To) Not equal to (not ISO standard)
!< (Not Less Than) Not less than (not ISO standard)
!> (Not Greater Than) Not greater than (not ISO standard)

String Concatenation Operator: SQL Server provides the following string operators. String concatenation operators can combine two or more character or binary strings, columns, or a combination of strings and column names into one expression.

+ (String Concatenation)
+= (String Concatenation)
% (Wildcard – Character(s) to Match)
[ ] (Wildcard – Character(s) to Match)
[^] (Wildcard – Character(s) Not to Match)
_ (Wildcard – Match One Character)

Compound Operators: Compound operators execute some operation and set an original value to the result of the operation.

Unary Operators: Unary operators perform an operation on only one expression of any one of the data types of the numeric data type category.

For more information: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms174986.aspx